User Roles and Permissions in Laravel

User Roles and Permissions in Laravel

User Roles and Permissions in Laravel

Hello Artisans

How are you all I hope you are doing well?. today this is my 4th article. and now in this article, we will discuss various user roles and permissions in laravel. as you guyz are well know that laravel provides advance user roles and permission artitechture to handle a large varitey of user user roles and permissions.

Roles and Permissions in Laravel

You guyz are well familiar with roles and permissions i think. if not then dont worry today i am gonna explain it to you. as you roles and permissions are an important part of many web applications. in this article we will see how to use it ! we can use spatie/laravel-permission 

I am writing it for both laravel 6 and seven if you find any difficulties then please let me know. I ll short out that ok.

Step 1 : Download Laravel Project

Open up your terminal and create a new Laravel project by typing in the following command

composer create-project --prefer-dist laravel/laravel blog
  

Step 2:  Make Auth

If you are using laravel version 6 then run below command to make auth

composer require laravel/ui --dev
php artisan ui vue --auth
npm install
npm run watch

If you are using below laravel version 6 like 5.6 or 5.8 they remember how we have created users in laravel! yes right.

php artisan make:auth

Step 3 : Make Model

We need a model to make users’ roles and permissions. So let’s create our model using the below command.

php artisan make:model Permission -m
php artisan make:model Role -m

As you may know, -m flag will create a migration file for the model. Now you’ll have two new migration files waiting for you to add new fields. 

Step 4 : Edit the migration file

public function up()
    {
       Schema::create('users', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->increments('id');
            $table->string('name');
            $table->string('email',191)->unique();
            $table->timestamp('email_verified_at')->nullable();
            $table->string('password');
            $table->rememberToken();
            $table->timestamps();
    });
}
use Illuminate\Database\Migrations\Migration;
use Illuminate\Database\Schema\Blueprint;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Schema;

class CreatePermissionsTable extends Migration
{
    
    public function up()
    {
        Schema::create('permissions', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->increments('id');
            $table->string('name'); // edit posts
            $table->string('slug'); //edit-posts
            $table->timestamps();
        });
    }

    public function down()
    {
        Schema::dropIfExists('permissions');
    }
}
use Illuminate\Database\Migrations\Migration;
use Illuminate\Database\Schema\Blueprint;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Schema;

class CreateRolesTable extends Migration
{
    public function up()
    {
        Schema::create('roles', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->increments('id');
            $table->string('name'); // edit posts
            $table->string('slug'); //edit-posts
            $table->timestamps();
        });
    }

    public function down()
    {
        Schema::dropIfExists('roles');
    }
}

Step 5 : Adding pivot tables

For this first pivot table, we’ll create a new migration file for the table users_permissions. So run below command to create.

php artisan make:migration create_users_permissions_table --create=users_permissions

For this pivot table between users and permissions, our schema should look like.

use Illuminate\Database\Migrations\Migration;
use Illuminate\Database\Schema\Blueprint;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Schema;

class CreateUsersPermissionsTable extends Migration
{
    public function up()
    {
        Schema::create('users_permissions', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->unsignedInteger('user_id');
            $table->unsignedInteger('permission_id');

            //FOREIGN KEY CONSTRAINTS
            $table->foreign('user_id')->references('id')->on('users')->onDelete('cascade');
            $table->foreign('permission_id')->references('id')->on('permissions')->onDelete('cascade');
 
            //SETTING THE PRIMARY KEYS
          // Web designing world // web designing labs 
          // appfinz // kishan kumar
            $table->primary(['user_id','permission_id']);
        });
    }

    public function down()
    {
        Schema::dropIfExists('users_permissions');
    }
}

Now let’s create a pivot table for users_roles.

php artisan make:migration create_users_roles_table --create=users_roles

The fields inside this table will pretty much the same as in users_permissions table. Our schema for this table will look like:

use Illuminate\Database\Migrations\Migration;
use Illuminate\Database\Schema\Blueprint;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Schema;

class CreateUsersRolesTable extends Migration
{
    public function up()
    {
        Schema::create('users_roles', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->unsignedInteger('user_id');
            $table->unsignedInteger('role_id');

         //FOREIGN KEY CONSTRAINTS
           $table->foreign('user_id')->references('id')->on('users')->onDelete('cascade');
           $table->foreign('role_id')->references('id')->on('roles')->onDelete('cascade');

         //SETTING THE PRIMARY KEYS
           $table->primary(['user_id','role_id']);
        });
    }

    public function down()
    {
        Schema::dropIfExists('users_roles');
    }
}

Under a particular Role, User may have specific Permission

For example, a user may have permission to post a topic, and an admin may have the permission to edit or delete a topic. In this case, let’s set up a new table for roles_permissions to handle this complexity.

php artisan make:migration create_roles_permissions_table --create=roles_permissions

The Schema will be like:

use Illuminate\Database\Migrations\Migration;
use Illuminate\Database\Schema\Blueprint;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Schema;

class CreateRolesPermissionsTable extends Migration
{
    public function up()
    {
        Schema::create('roles_permissions', function (Blueprint $table) {
             $table->unsignedInteger('role_id');
             $table->unsignedInteger('permission_id');

             //FOREIGN KEY CONSTRAINTS
             $table->foreign('role_id')->references('id')->on('roles')->onDelete('cascade');
             $table->foreign('permission_id')->references('id')->on('permissions')->onDelete('cascade');

             //SETTING THE PRIMARY KEYS
             $table->primary(['role_id','permission_id']);
        });
    }

    public function down()
    {
        Schema::dropIfExists('roles_permissions');
    }
}

Now run following command to create migration

php artisan migrate

Step 6 : Setting up the relationships

We’ll start by creating the relationships between roles and permissions table. In our Role.php , Permision.php.

App/Role.php

public function permissions() {

   return $this->belongsToMany(Permission::class,'roles_permissions');
       
}

public function users() {

   return $this->belongsToMany(User::class,'users_roles');
       
}

App/Permission.php

public function roles() {

   return $this->belongsToMany(Role::class,'roles_permissions');
       
}

public function users() {

   return $this->belongsToMany(User::class,'users_permissions');
       
}

Step 7 : Creating a Trait

Inside of our app directory, let’s create a new directory and name it as Permissions and create a new file namely HasPermissionsTrait.php. A nice little trait has been setup to handle user relations. Back in our User model, just import this trait and we’re good to go.

app/User.php

namespace App;

use App\Permissions\HasPermissionsTrait;

class User extends Authenticatable
{
    use HasPermissionsTrait; //Import The Trait
}

Now open HasPermissionsTrait.php and paste those following code.

App/Permissions/HasPermissionsTrait.php

namespace App\Permissions;

use App\Permission;
use App\Role;

trait HasPermissionsTrait {

   public function givePermissionsTo(... $permissions) {

    $permissions = $this->getAllPermissions($permissions);
    dd($permissions);
    if($permissions === null) {
      return $this;
    }
    $this->permissions()->saveMany($permissions);
    return $this;
  }

  public function withdrawPermissionsTo( ... $permissions ) {

    $permissions = $this->getAllPermissions($permissions);
    $this->permissions()->detach($permissions);
    return $this;

  }

  public function refreshPermissions( ... $permissions ) {

    $this->permissions()->detach();
    return $this->givePermissionsTo($permissions);
  }

  public function hasPermissionTo($permission) {

    return $this->hasPermissionThroughRole($permission) || $this->hasPermission($permission);
  }

  public function hasPermissionThroughRole($permission) {

    foreach ($permission->roles as $role){
      if($this->roles->contains($role)) {
        return true;
      }
    }
    return false;
  }

  public function hasRole( ... $roles ) {

    foreach ($roles as $role) {
      if ($this->roles->contains('slug', $role)) {
        return true;
      }
    }
    return false;
  }
    // Appfinz Technologies //
  public function roles() {

    return $this->belongsToMany(Role::class,'users_roles');

  }
  public function permissions() {

    return $this->belongsToMany(Permission::class,'users_permissions');

  }
  protected function hasPermission($permission) {

    return (bool) $this->permissions->where('slug', $permission->slug)->count();
  }

  protected function getAllPermissions(array $permissions) {

    return Permission::whereIn('slug',$permissions)->get();
    
  }

}

Here, we’re iterating through the roles and checking by the slug field, if that specific role exists. You can check or debug this by using:

$user = $request->user(); //getting the current logged in user
dd($user->hasRole('admin','editor')); // and so on

Step 8 :  Create CustomProvider

We’ll be utilizing the Laravel’s “can” directive to check if the User have Permission. and instead of using $user->hasPermissionTo().

we’ll use $user->can() To do so, we need to create a new PermissionsServiceProvider for authorization

php artisan make:provider PermissionsServiceProvider

Register your service provider and head over to the boot method to provide us a Gateway to use can() method.

namespace App\Providers;

use App\Permission;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Blade;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Gate;
use Illuminate\Support\ServiceProvider;
	// kishan Kumar Appfinz //
class PermissionsServiceProvider extends ServiceProvider
{
   
    public function register()
    {
        //
    }

    public function boot()
    {
        try {
            Permission::get()->map(function ($permission) {
                Gate::define($permission->slug, function ($user) use ($permission) {
                    return $user->hasPermissionTo($permission);
                });
            });
        } catch (\Exception $e) {
            report($e);
            return false;
        }

        //Blade directives
        Blade::directive('role', function ($role) {
             return "if(auth()->check() && auth()->user()->hasRole({$role})) :"; //return this if statement inside php tag
        });

        Blade::directive('endrole', function ($role) {
             return "endif;"; //return this endif statement inside php tag
        });

    }
}

now we have to register our PermissionsServiceProvider. Open this following file add this in providers array.

config\app.php

 'providers' => [

        App\Providers\PermissionsServiceProvider::class,
    
 ],

You can learn more about Laravel’s Gate facade at Laravel’s documentation. You can test it out as:

dd($user->can('permission-slug'));

Step 9 : Add Dummy Data To Check

For creating roles and permissions tutorial, we need dummy data to check our user access. To create it paste this following code into this following slug.

Route::get('/roles', 'PermissionController@Permission');

App\Http\Controllers\PermissionController.php

namespace App\Http\Controllers;

use App\Permission;
use App\Role;
use App\User;
use Illuminate\Http\Request;

class PermissionController extends Controller
{   

    public function Permission()
    {   
    	$dev_permission = Permission::where('slug','create-tasks')->first();
		$manager_permission = Permission::where('slug', 'edit-users')->first();

		//RoleTableSeeder.php
		$dev_role = new Role();
		$dev_role->slug = 'developer';
		$dev_role->name = 'Front-end Developer';
		$dev_role->save();
		$dev_role->permissions()->attach($dev_permission);

		$manager_role = new Role();
		$manager_role->slug = 'manager';
		$manager_role->name = 'Assistant Manager';
		$manager_role->save();
		$manager_role->permissions()->attach($manager_permission);

		$dev_role = Role::where('slug','developer')->first();
		$manager_role = Role::where('slug', 'manager')->first();

		$createTasks = new Permission();
		$createTasks->slug = 'create-tasks';
		$createTasks->name = 'Create Tasks';
		$createTasks->save();
		$createTasks->roles()->attach($dev_role);

		$editUsers = new Permission();
		$editUsers->slug = 'edit-users';
		$editUsers->name = 'Edit Users';
		$editUsers->save();
		$editUsers->roles()->attach($manager_role);

		$dev_role = Role::where('slug','developer')->first();
		$manager_role = Role::where('slug', 'manager')->first();
		$dev_perm = Permission::where('slug','create-tasks')->first();
		$manager_perm = Permission::where('slug','edit-users')->first();

		$developer = new User();
		$developer->name = 'kishan kumar';
		$developer->email = 'info@appfinz.com';
		$developer->password = bcrypt('secrettt');
		$developer->save();
		$developer->roles()->attach($dev_role);
		$developer->permissions()->attach($dev_perm);

		$manager = new User();
		$manager->name = 'Ashish Singhal';
		$manager->email = 'asdesignstudio01@gmail.com';
		$manager->password = bcrypt('secrettt');
		$manager->save();
		$manager->roles()->attach($manager_role);
		$manager->permissions()->attach($manager_perm);

		
		return redirect()->back();
    }
}

Now go to this URL and hit enter on your keyboard. Then you will see some dummy data to those following tables. To test this out in your routes files, we can die and dump on:

$user = $request->user();
dd($user->hasRole('developer')); //will return true, if user has role
dd($user->givePermissionsTo('create-tasks'));// will return permission, if not null
dd($user->can('create-tasks')); // will return true, if user has permission

Inside of our view files, we can use it like:

@role('developer')

 Hello developer

@endrole

This means only those users can see it whose role is a developer. Now you can use many roles as you want.

Step 10 : Setup the Middleware

In order to protect our routes, we can set up the middleware to do so.

php artisan make:middleware RoleMiddleware

Add the middleware into your kernel & setup the handle method as follows

App\Http\Middleware\RoleMiddleware.php

namespace App\Http\Middleware;

use Closure;

class RoleMiddleware
{

    public function handle($request, Closure $next, $role, $permission = null)
    {
        if(!$request->user()->hasRole($role)) {

             abort(404);

        }

        if($permission !== null && !$request->user()->can($permission)) {

              abort(404);
        }

        return $next($request);

    }
}

Now we have to register this RoleMiddleware. So add this following code to register it.

App\Http\Kernel.php

protected $routeMiddleware = [
    .
    .
    'role' => \App\Http\Middleware\RoleMiddleware::class,
];

Right now in our routes, we can do something like this

Route::group(['middleware' => 'role:developer'], function() {

   Route::get('/admin', function() {

      return 'Welcome Admin';
      
   });

});

Now you can use your controller like below to give user permission and access.

public function __construct()
{
   $this->middleware('auth'); 
}


public function store(Request $request)
{
    if ($request->user()->can('create-tasks')) {
        //Code goes here
    }
}

public function destroy(Request $request, $id)
{   
    if ($request->user()->can('delete-tasks')) {
      //Code goes here
    }

}

Now only those users can access this route whose role is the developer. I hope you will understand the total procedure. Hope it will help you. User Roles and Permissions in Laravel